References

Background

  1. United States Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes and Behaviors, Highlights Report, n.d.
  2. Dill, J. and T. Carr. (2003). Bicycle commuting and facilities in major U.S. cities: if you build them, commuters will use them, Transportation Research Record 1828: 116-123.
  3. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2001. Washington, DC, 2001.
  4. Ewing, R. and King, M. Flexible Design of New Jersey's Main Streets, New Jersey Department of Transportation, undated.
  5. California Department of Transportation, Main Streets: Flexibility in Design and Operations, Sacramento, CA, January 2005.
  6. McCann, B., Complete Streets Report, Analysis of a Survey of Complete Streets Laws, Policies, and Plans in the United States, Thunderhead Alliance, December 2004

Crash Factors

  1. Hunter, W.W., J.C. Stutts, W.E. Pein, and C.L. Cox. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990's. United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 1996. [FHWA-RD-95-163]
  2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 2003. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Washington, DC, n.d. Accessed at: http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/TSFAnn/TSF2003F.pdf [DOT HS 809 775]
  3. Stutts, J.C. and Hunter, W.W. Injuries to Pedestrians and Bicyclists: An Analysis Based on Hospital Emergency Department Data. United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 1997. [FHWA-RD-99-078]
  4. United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. National Bicycling and Walking Study, Ten Year Status Report October 2004. Accessed at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bikeped/study/index.htm
  5. United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, The National Bicycling and Walking Study - Transportation Choices for a Changing America: Final Report. 1994 [FHWA-PD-94-023].
  6. North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. Bicycle Crash Facts Summary Report. n.d. Accessed at: http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/pbcat/pdf/ summary_bike_facts5yrs.pdf
  7. North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. Bicycle Crash Types Summary Report. n.d. Accessed at: http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/pbcat/pdf/ summary_bike_types5yrs.pdf
  8. Attewell R.G., K. Glase, and M. McFadden. Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention 33: 345-352, 2001.
  9. Rivara, F.P., Astley, S.J., Clarren, S.K., Thompson, D.C., and Thompson, R.S. "Fit of Bicycle Safety Helmets and Risk of Head Injuries in Children." Injury Prevention. vol. 5, no. 3, 1999, 194-97.

Crash Analysis

  1. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, BicyclingInfo.org. Bikeability Checklist. Accessed at: http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/cps/checklist.htm
  2. Hunter, W.W., D.L. Harkey, J.R. Stewart, and M.L. Birk. Evaluation of the Blue Bike Lane Treatment Used in Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Conflict Areas in Portland, Oregon. Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, August 2000. [FHWA_RD_00_150]
  3. Harkey, D.L, D.W. Reinfurt, M. Knuiman, J.R. Stewart, and A. Sorton. Development of the Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept. United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, December 1998. [FHWA-RD-98-072]
  4. Landis, B.W., V.R. Vattikuti, R.M.Ottenburg, T.A. Petritsch, M. Guttenplan, and L.B. Crider. Intersection Level of Service: The Bicycle Through Movement. Sprinkle Consulting Inc.: Lutz, FL, 2002.
  5. Carter, D.L., Hunter, W.W., Zegeer, C.V., Stewart, J.R., and Huang, H. Index for Assessing Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration, In press.
  6. Snyder, M., and R. Knoblauch. Pedestrian Safety: The Identification of Precipitating Factors and Possible Countermeasures (2 Vols.). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Washington, DC, January 1971. [DOT-HS-800-403]
  7. Knoblauch, R., W. Moore, Jr., and P. Schmitz. Pedestrian Accidents Occurring on Freeways: An Investigation of Causative Factors, Accident Data. Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 1978. [FHWA-RD-78-159/171]
  8. Knoblauch, R. Causative Factors and Countermeasures for Rural and Suburban Pedestrian Accidents: Accident Data Collection and Analyses. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Washington, DC, June 1977. [DOT HS-802-266]
  9. Hunter, W.W., J. C. Stutts, W. E. Pein, and C. L. Cox. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s. Federal Highway Administration, Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R & D: McLean, VA, June 1996. [FHWA-RD-95-163]
  10. Harkey, D.L., J. Mekemson, M.C. Chen, and K Krull. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool. Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, December 1999. [FHWA-RD-99-192]

Countermeasures

Shared Roadway

  1. Oregon Department of Transportation. Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan: An Element of the Oregon Transportation Plan. Salem, Oregon, 1995, 267 pp. Accessible at: http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/BIKEPED/planproc.shtml
  2. Nabti, J.M. and M.D. Ridgway. Innovative Bicycle Treatments: an Informational Report of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the ITE Pedestrian and Bicycle Council. ITE: Washington, DC, 2002.
  3. AASHTO Task Force on Geometric Design. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, 1999.
  4. Iowa Department of Transportation. Iowa Trails 2000, Chapter 4. Accessed from: http://www.iowabikes.com/#Documents%20and%20Plans
  5. City of Davis. City of Davis Comprehensive Bicycle Plan, May 2002. Accessed from: http://www.city.davis.ca.us/pw/pdfs/01bikeplan-images.pdf
  6. North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. North Carolina Bicycle Crash Data. Accessed at: http://www.pedbikeinfo.org
  7. Florida State University. Bicycle Safety and Enforcement. Accessed at: http://www.safety.fsu.edu/bicyclemanual.html#accidents
  8. Florida Department of Transportation. Florida Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design Handbook, April 2000. Accessed at: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/safety/ped_bike/handbooks_and_research/bhchpt5.pdf
  9. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. Wisconsin Bicycle Facility Design Handbook, January, 2004, 193 pp. Accessed at: http://www.dot.wisconsin.gov/projects/state/docs/bike-facility.pdf
  10. Harkey, D.L. and C.V. Zegeer. PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System. Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 2004, 336 pp.
  11. Beneficial Designs, Inc, J.B. Kirschbaum, P.W. Axelson, P.E. Longmuir, K.M. Mispagel, J.A. Stein, and D.A. Yamada. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2001.
  12. Hodgson, G.D., K. Hunter-Zaworski, and R.D. Layton. A Preliminary Assessment of the Effects of Access Management on Pedestrians, Bicycles and Transit, Final Report. Transportation Research Institute, Oregon State University: Corvallis, OR and Transportation Northwest, Department of Civil Engineering, University Of Washington: Seattle, WA (n.d.) Accessed at: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ppsc/research/CompleteReports/TNW99-03AccessMgtImpact.pdf
  13. Transportation Research Board. Access Management Manual. Washington, DC, 2003, 387 pp.
  14. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 420: Impacts of Access Management Techniques. National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1999, 157 pp.

On-Road Bike Facilities

  1. Jacobsen, P.L. Safety in Numbers: More Walkers and Bicyclists, Safer Walking and Bicycling. Injury Prevention,9, 205-209, 2003.
  2. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 2003.
  3. Harkey, D L, Stewart, J R, and Rodgman, E R. Evaluation of Shared-Use Facilities for Bicycles and Motor Vehicles in Florida. Study prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation: Tallahassee, FL, June 1996.
  4. Wilkinson, W.C. and Moran, C.G., Highway Route Designation Criteria for Bicycle Routes: Final Report, Report No. FHWA-RD-86-066, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1994.
  5. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Washington, D.C., 2001.
  6. Hunter, W.W. An Evaluation of Red Shoulders as a Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility. Study prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation: Tallahassee, FL, July 1998.
  7. Hunter, W.W. and Feaganes, J.R.. Effect of Wide Curb Lane Conversions on Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Interactions. Study prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation: Tallahassee, FL, 2004.
  8. Souleyrette, R., McDonald, T., Hans, Z., Kamyab, A., Welch, T., Storm, B., and Anderson-Wilk, M. Paved Shoulders on Primary Highways in Iowa: An Analysis of Shoulder Surfacing Citeria, Costs, and Benefits, Center for Transportation Research and Education, Ames, Iowa, 2001.

Intersection Treatments

  1. Robinson, B.W., et al., Roundabouts: An Informational Guide, Publication No. FHWA-RD-00-067, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, June 2000.
  2. Applying Roundabouts in the United States, NCHRP Project 3-65 Final Report, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (to be completed in 2006).
  3. AASHTO Task Force on Geometric Design. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, 1999.
  4. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 2003.
  5. Oregon Department of Transportation. Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan: An Element of the Oregon Transportation Plan. Salem, Oregon, 1995, 267 pp. Accessed at: http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/BIKEPED/planproc.shtml

Maintenance

  1. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO Maintenance Manual: The Maintenance and Management of Roadways and Bridges. Washington, DC, 1999.

Traffic Calming

  1. Institute of Transportation Engineers. Traffic Calming for Communities, Traffic Calming Library. Washington, DC. Accessed at: http://www.ite.org/traffic/
  2. Ewing, R H. Traffic Calming: State of the Practice. Institute of Transportation Engineers, prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, D.C., 1999. Accessed at : http://www.ite.org/traffic/tcstate.asp [FHWA-RD-99-135]

Internet resources on traffic calming:

Trails/Shared-Use Paths

  1. AASHTO Task Force on Geometric Design. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, 1999.
  2. Oregon Department of Transportation. Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan: An Element of the Oregon Transportation Plan, section 11.6, Multi-use Paths. Salem, Oregon, 1995, 267 pp. Accessible at: http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/BIKEPED/planproc.shtml
  3. Alta Planning + Design. Rails-with-Trails: Lessons Learned: Literature Review, Current Practices, Conclusions. U.S.DOT, Federal Highway Administration, August 2002. Accessible at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/rectrails/rwt/. [FTA-MA-26-0052-04-1]
  4. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 2003.

Markings, Signs, and Signals

  1. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 2003.
  2. Pein,W.E., Hunter, W.W., and Stewart, J.R. Evaluation of the Shared-Use Arrow, Study prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, December 1999.

Education and Enforcement

  1. Beck, K. (2002). The case for bicycle law enforcement, IPMBA (International Police Mountain Bike Association) News, Spring 2002: Baltimore, MD. Accessible at: http://www.ipmba.org/newsletter-0206-safety.htm
  2. Federal Highway Administration. National Bicycle Safety Education Curriculum Project. U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Washington, DC, undated. Acessible at: http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/ee/introguide.cfm
    Information also available at:
    Federal Highway Administration. Bicycle Safety Education Resource Center website. Accessible at: http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/ee/fhwa_db.cfm and http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/education/
  3. Federal Highway Administration. Good Practices Guide for Bicycle Safety Education. Washington, DC, 2002 [FHWA-SA-02-001 / HSA-4/30-02(5M)QE]. Accessible at http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/ee/bestguide.cfm
  4. AASHTO Task Force on Geometric Design. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: Washington, DC, 1999.
  5. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Federal Highway Administration: Washington, DC, 2003.

Support Facilities and Programs

  1. Spindler, S. (2004). Personal communication. Steve Spindler Cartography, 303 Wyncote Rd, Jenkintown, PA 19046, Web site link: http://www.bikemap.com/