Implementation

Communities are asking that motor vehicle speeds be reduced on their neighborhood streets and that streets be made more accessible and inviting for bicycling (and walking). Some of the most important issues to the public are safety, access, and aesthetics. This chapter discusses some of the issues related to setting priorities and implementing needed bicycling improvements.

Getting Started

Getting started can be daunting — the needs are overwhelming, resources are scarce, and staff time is limited. Every community is faced with the questions of “Where do I start?” and “How do I get going?” While it is not the intent of this guide to provide an exhaustive discussion of implementation strategies, it offers some direction.

Priorities

Since all bicycling needs cannot be addressed immediately, project priorities need to be established. To create priorities requires several program objectives:

One Step at a Time

To create a safe community for bicycling, take one step at a time. Along main corridors, check to see that there is adequate space for riding for the speed and volume of motor vehicle traffic at both midblock and intersection locations. In other words, check block by block and intersection by intersection. Individually, these locations do not create a safe, livable community. Collectively, they create the infrastructure needed for a great place to work, play and conduct business. In other words, the whole bicycling system is greater than the sum of its parts.

Community Concerns

Be very sensitive to community concerns. Public participation will build community pride and ownership that is essential to long-term success. Some of the problems identified in this guide will not be an issue in your community and some of the tools may be perceived as too expensive (at least initially). There probably will be measures that your community puts on hold for a few years until a community consensus is reached. Conversely, there probably will be measures that your community would like to pursue that are not even mentioned in this planning section.

Deliverables

It is very important to produce immediate deliverables that people can see. For example, the addition of bike lanes and/or the removal of parking along a street are highly visible, while a transportation plan is a paper document that may never be seen or appreciated by the public. To keep its momentum, a program needs some “quick wins.” They create the sense that something is happening and that government is responsive.

Additional Resources

The Bikeability Checklist can quickly identify some of the more obvious deficiencies in your neighborhood or community.
http://www.rwjf.org/files/newsroom/interactives/sprawl/bike_app.jsp
http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/cps/checklist.htm
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities is a comprehensive document for information about facilities. The AASHTO Web site is:
http://www.transportation.org/
The Bicycle Compatibility Index (BCI) is a tool that can be used by bicycle coordinators, transportation planners, traffic engineers, and others to evaluate the capability of specific roadways to accommodate both motorists and bicyclists.
http://www.hsrc.unc.edu/research/pedbike/98095/index.html
Information on both Bicycle Level of Service (BLOS) and the Bicycle Compatibility Index (BCI) is contained at a Web site maintained by the League of Illinois Bicyclists.
http://www.bikelib.org/roads/blos/
Information on Intersection Level of Service: The Bicycle Through Movement is contained on a Florida Department of Transportation Web site:
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/systems/sm/los/pdfs/BLOSTM.pdf
NCHRP Project 7-14 provides guidelines for the analysis of investments in bicycle facilities. The research was performed by the University of Minnesota, Planners Collaborative Inc, the UNC Highway Safety Research Center, and the UNC Active Living by Design Program. A cost-demands-benefits analysis tool can be found at this Web site:
http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/bikecost/
Aesthetics: California’s Local Government Commission has some great resources on street design and livability.
http://www.lgc.org/transportation/street.html
http://www.lgc.org/center/index.html

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Construction Strategies

There are many ways to accomplish projects. Be creative; take advantage of opportunities as they present themselves. Here are some suggestions:

Regulation of New Development and Redevelopment

Issues here tend to pertain more to pedestrian activities. For example, developers can be required to install public infrastructure such as sidewalks, curb ramps, and traffic signals. In addition, zoning requirements can be written to allow for or require narrower streets, shorter blocks, and mixed-use development. However, these infrastructure items benefit bicycling as well. Encouraging developers and community leaders to focus on basic pedestrian and bicycling needs will benefit the community and increase the attractiveness of the developments themselves.

Annual Programs

Consider expanding or initiating annual programs to make small, visible improvements. Examples include improving space for bicyclists on streets where it is poor, or adding space to a link between two areas to improve connectivity. This creates momentum and community support. Several considerations should be made when developing these programs:

Capital Projects

“Piggybacking” bicycling (and pedestrian) improvements onto capital projects is one of the best ways to make major improvements in a community. For example, when a street is resurfaced, consider whether lanes should be narrowed when the street is re-striped to provide for bike lanes, wide curb lanes, or simply more space for cyclists. Landscaping, lighting, and other amenities can be included in road projects, utility projects and private construction in public rights-of-way (for example, cable television, high-speed fiber optics, etc.). To accomplish this, there are several things that can be done:

Public/Private Partnerships

Increasingly, public improvements are realized through public/private partnerships. These partnerships can take many forms. Examples include Community Development Corporations, neighborhood organizations, grants from foundations, direct industry support and involvement of individual citizens. In fact, many public projects, whether they are traffic-calming improvements, street trees or the restoration of historic buildings, are the result of individual people getting involved and deciding to make a difference. This involvement doesn’t just happen; it needs to be encouraged and supported by local governmental authorities.

Additional Resources

Cities such as Cambridge, MA, Eugene and Portland, OR, and Seattle, WA have adopted plans and procedures to ensure that bicycle improvements become a routine activity in new development projects, reconstruction work, and retrofits. Charlotte, NC, also has some exciting urban street design guidelines out for public review. These include a chapter on the design of streets for multiple users, as well as an appendix with a tool to calculate bicycle and pedestrian level of service at signalized intersections. Please note that Web site addresses change frequently.

City of Cambridge, MA
http://www.cambridgema.gov/~CDD/et/bike/
City of Portland, OR
http://www.trans.ci.portland.or.us/bicycles/default.htm
City of Eugene, OR
http://www.eugene-or.gov/portal/server.pt?space=CommunityPage&cached=true&parentname=CommunityPage&parentid=3&in_hi_userid=2&control=SetCommunity&CommunityID=435&PageID=541
City of Seattle, WA
http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/transportation/bikeprogram.htm
City of Charlotte, NC
http://www.charmeck.org/Departments/Transportation/Urban+Street+Design+Guidelines.htm

Funding

Bicycling (and pedestrian) projects and programs can be funded by federal, State, local, private, or any combination of sources. A summary of federal bicycling (and pedestrian) funding opportunities can be viewed at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bikeped/bp-broch.htm#funding.

Communities that are most successful at securing funds often have the following ingredients of success:

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